Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Cultures

School of Design

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Carl Lawrence

Chair of Textile Engineering

BSc (Applied Physics); PhD (Textile Engineering)

Biography

Carl has 12 years industrial experience in materials research employed by BISRA (Sheffield); Ruston and Paxman (Lincoln); Allen Clarke Research Centre (Caswell, Northants); Shirley Institute (now BTTG, Manchester); Turner and Newall (Rochdale) and RK Carbon Fibre and Composites (Stockport). Prior to his appointment to a chair at the University of Leeds, he was a senior lecturer in textile engineering at UMIST, where he was employed for 11 years. He is a member of the Management Board of the Technitex Faraday partnership and a member of the Techtextil Scientific Committee of Messe Frankfurt.

Research Interests

Fibre Processing

Recent work includes elucidation of the complex process-fibre interactions in the carding process in collaboration with Oxford’s OCIAM, which considers the fibre dynamics and aerodynamics of the short-staple card. High-speed photographic techniques using a 10w, 1nsec pulsed copper vapour laser and 40k fps video camera were employed to directly visualize the mechanisms in detail for the first time. Unconventional spinning system development includes work on a novel method of friction spinning; the use of air-jets for self-twist yarns; an investigation into a new patented disc-ring spinning process and the use of an electrostatic system for the assembly of core-yarns. Further research includes the structure-property relation of core-spun yarns; electrically conductive yarns; and multicomponent blend structures.

Natural Fibre Engineering and Biofibres

Modification of natural protein and cellulose fibres to produce alternative engineering materials is designed to extend the range of end-use applications for such natural materials in medicine and in the industrial engineering sectors. Research also includes melt and solution spinning of biopolymers for production of biodegradable / bioresorbable fibres. Previous work undertaken at Leeds has involved wet spinning of chitin, chitosan and alginate fibres. Current studies concern the production and characterisation of fibres from a variety of biopolymers. Work on ultra-fine filaments involves the formation of sub-micron filaments that are self-bulking or have high wickability.

Geosynthetic Fabric Engineering

Interest surrounds the engineering and construction of fibrous structures for inclusion in composite systems for rail track foundations to prevent erosion pumping. Other areas of research activity concerns geotextile protection systems for geomembrane containment structures, hydraulic properties of needle-punched nonwovens for concrete casting and structure-property relationships and performance of geosynthetic materials. In the building and construction field the biaxial properties of architectural textiles and stress cracking in HDPE are important developing areas of interest.

Publications

Books

  • Lawrence C (2010) Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology. Woodhead Pub Ltd.

  • Lawrence C (2010) Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology. Woodhead Pub Ltd.

  • Lawrence CA (2003) Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology. CRC Press.

Journal articles

  • Akonda MH, Lawrence CA, Weager BM (2012) “Recycled carbon fibre-reinforced polypropylene thermoplastic composites”, COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING. 43.1: 79-86.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.09.014

  • Lawrence CA, El-Dessouky HM (2011) “Nanoparticles dispersion in processing functionalised PP/TiO2 nanocomposites: distribution and properties”, Journal of Nanoparticles Research. 13: 1115-1124.

  • Zarrebini M, Mahmoudi MR, El-Bakary MA, El-Dessouky HM, Lawrence CA (2010) “The Influence of Fiber Fineness on Physical Characteristics of Staple Polypropylene Fibers Spun at Different Pumping Speeds”, J APPL POLYM SCI. 115.5: 2892-2897.
    DOI: 10.1002/app.31333

  • El-Dessouky HM, Yassien KM, Lawrence CA (2010) “Effect of heating-cooling cycle on the opto-structural properties of low-density polyethylene fibres using two-beam interference microscopy”, J TEXT I. 101.9: 812-822.
    DOI: 10.1080/00405000903073626

  • El-Dessouky HM, Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Lewis ELV, Voice AM, Ward IM (2010) “On the Physical Behavior of Isotactic Polypropylene Fibers Extruded at Different Draw-Down Ratios: II. Structure and Properties”, POLYM ENG SCI. 50.1: 200-208.
    DOI: 10.1002/pen.21533

  • Akonda M, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi M, EL-Dessouky HM, Thomas A (2009) “New materials concepts for ultra-lightweight fibre reinforce thermoplastic composites”, ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials.

  • El-Dessouky HM, Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Yassien KM, Sokkar TZN, Hamza AA (2009) “On the Physical Behavior of Isotactic Polypropylene Fibers Extruded at Different Draw-Down Ratios. I. Optical Properties and Cold-Drawing”, POLYM ENG SCI. 49.11: 2116-2124.
    DOI: 10.1002/pen.21449

  • El-Dessouky HM, Mahmoudi MR, Yassien KM, Lawrence CA (2008) “An Optical Investigation of High-Tenacity Polyester (H-T PET) Fibers Annealed at Different Temperatures”, POLYM ENG SCI. 48.12: 2329-2334.
    DOI: 10.1002/pen.21184

  • El-Dessouky HM, Lawrence CA, Voice AM, Lewis ELV, Ward IM (2007) “An interferometric prediction of the intrinsic optical properties for cold-drawn iPP, PTFE and PVDF fibres”, J OPT A-PURE APPL OP. 9.11: 1041-1047.
    DOI: 10.1088/1464-4258/9/11/012

  • Wijayathunga VN, Lawrence CA, Blackburn RS, Bandara MPU, Lewis ELV, El-Dessouky HM, Cheung V (2007) “Influence of laser irradiation on the optical and structural properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibres”, OPT LASER TECHNOL. 39.7: 1301-1309.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2006.12.007

  • Lawrence CA, Liu PH (2006) “Relation of structure, properties and performance of fibrous media for gas filtration”, CHEM ENG TECHNOL. 29.8: 957-967.
    DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200600055

  • Bandara MPU, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR (2006) “Instrumentation for the measurement of fabric air permeability at higher pressure levels”, Measurement Science and Technology. 17.8: 2247-2255.
    DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/17/8/027

  • Lawrence CA, Lai P, Russell SJ (2006) “Gas-particle separation performance”, TUT Textiles a Usages Techniques. 60: 14-18.

  • Koc E, Lawrence CA (2006) “Mechanisms of wrapper fibre formation in rotor spinning: An experimental approach”, J TEXT I. 97.6: 483-492.
    DOI: 10.1533/joti.2006.0199

  • Koc E, Lawrence CA, Iype C (2005) “Wrapper fibres in open-end rotor-spun yarns: Yarn properties and wrapper fibres”, FIBRES TEXT EAST EUR. 13.2: 8-15.

  • Dehghani A, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi M, Greenwood B, Iype C (2004) “Aerodynamics and fibre transfer at the cylinder-doffer interface”, Journal of the Textile Institute Part 1: Fibre Science and Textile Technology. 95.1-6: 35-48.
    DOI: 10.1533/joti.2001.0012

  • Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Greenwood B (2004) “Effect of the Licker-in on Fibre Tuft Assembly”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 95.1-6: 147-158.
    DOI: 10.1533/joti.2002.0032

  • Dehghani AA, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2004) “Aeroydnamics and Fibre Transfer at the Cylinder-Doffer Interface”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 95.1-6: 35-50.

  • Lawrence CA, Pourmohammadi A, Leaf GAV (2003) “Fibre Trajectories in the Transport Channel of an Air-Laid Nonwoven Process: Part 1 - Theoretical Model”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 94.1/2: 49-61.

  • Lawrence CA, Pourmohammadi A, Leaf GAV (2003) “Fibre Trajectory in the Transport Channel of an Air-laid Nonwoven Process: Part II-Experimental Observations of Fibre Motion”, Journal of the Textile Institute. (Accepted)

  • Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA (2003) “The Use of Air-Jet Technology to Produce Self-Twist Yarn Part II: Application of Tandem Jet Twisters”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 94.1: 149-165.

  • Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA (2003) “The Use of Air-jet Technology to Produce Self-twist Yarn Part 1: Preliminary Study”, Textile Research Journal. 94 part 1: 141-148.

  • Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Greenwood B, Iype C (2002) “The Effect of Fixed Flats on Yarn Quality”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 93.1: 197-209.

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Dehghani AA (2001) “The Use of Air-Jet Technology to Produce Self-Twist Yarns, Part 1: Prelimiary Study”, Journal of the Textile Institute. (Submitted)

  • Goktepe F, Lawrence CA (2001) “Deformation of yarn cross-section in relation to yarn structure”, FIBRES TEXT EAST EUR. 9.2: 18-22.

  • Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2001) “The Short staple Opening and Carding of Wool Fibres: Part 1 Cotton Blowroom Opening of Wool”, Textile Research Journal.

  • Dehghani A, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi M, Greenwood B, Iype C, Jones M, Ockendon H, Lee M (2001) “Fibre dynamics in revolving flats card an assessment of changes in the state of fibre mass during the carding process”, Texsci 2000. : 231-234.

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2001) “The Short Staple Opening and Carding of Wool Fibres: Part 2: The Effect of Carding Variables on Mean Fibre Length”, Textile Research Journal. (Submitted)

  • Greenwood B, Lawrence CA, Dehghani A, Mahmoudi M, Iype C (2001) “Messung der faservereinzelung durch die kurzfaserkardierung”, Melliand Textilberichte/International Textile Reports. 82.1-2: 30-32.

  • Greenwood B, Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Iype C (2000) “Measurement of the Extent of Fiber Discretization during Short Staple Carding”, Melliand International. 6: 204-205.

  • Goktepe F, Lawrence CA, Leaf GAV (2000) “Deformation of a Single Helix Under Simultaneous Application of Extension, Compression, and Bending”, Textile Research Journal. 70: 508-518.

  • Lawrence CA, Shen X (2000) “An Investigation into the Hydraulic Properties of Needle-Punched Nonwovens for Application in Wet-Press Concrete Casting: Part 1- Wet-Press Concrete Casting; Part 2- Predictive Models for Water Permeability of Needle Punched Nonwoven Fabrics”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 91.1: pp.48-60 + 61-77+.

  • Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B (2000) “Fibre dynamics in revolving flats card”, AUTEX Electronic Research Journal. 1: 64-77.

  • Lawrence CA, Shen X (2000) “An Investigation into the Hydraulic Properties of Needle-pinched Nonwovens for Application in Wet-press Concrete Casting: Part 1 - Wet Press Concrete Casting”, Textile Research Journal. 91 part 1.No 1: 78-99.

  • Dehghani AA, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B (2000) “An investigation into the opening, individualisation, orientation, and configuration of fibres during short staple carding”, AUTEX Electronic Research Journal. 1: 78-87.

  • Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2000) “The effect of aerodynamics on the kinematics of fibre transfer in the cylinder-doffer region of a revolving - flats card”, Textile Research Journal. Part 1.3: 359-373.

  • Dehghani AA, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2000) “Fibre Dynamics in Revolving Flats Card: An Assessment of Changes in the State of Fibre Mass during the Early Stages of the Carding Process”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 91, Part 1.3: 359-373.

  • Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B (2000) “A critical review of the fundamentals of the revolving flats card”, AUTEX Electronic Research Journal. 2: pp.1+.

  • Lawrence CA, Goktepe F, Leaf GAV (2000) “Deformation of a Single Helix under Simultaneous Application of Extension, Compression and Bending”, Textile Research Journal. 70.6: 508-518.

  • Lawrence CA, Shen X (2000) “An Investitation into the Hydraulic Properties of Needle-punched Nonwovens for Application in wet-press concrete casting: Part 2 - Predictive models for water permeability of needle-punched nonwovens fabrics”, Textile Research Journal. 91 part 1.1: 99-102.

  • Lawrence CA, Mohamed SA, Jou F (1996) “Yarn and Knitting Parameters Affecting Fly During Weft Knitting of Staple Yarns”, Textile Research Journal. 66.11: 694-709.

  • Lawrence CA, Chiu SF (1996) “A Study of a Spinning Concept for the Production of Woollen-type Carpet Yarns Directly from Card Sliver”, Textile Research Journal. 66: I-15.

  • Jiang RK, Lawrence CA (1996) “A Study of the Mechanics of Fibre Staightening during Deposition in the Disc-spinning Process”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 87

  • Lawrence CA, East GC, Oxenham W, Jou F (1996) “The Physical Properties of Composite Yarns Produced by Electrostatic Filament Charging Method”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 87: 78-96.

  • Lawrence CA (1996) “A Study of the Mechanics of Fibre-straightening during deposition in the disc-spinning process: Part 1 Theoretical Considerations”, Journal of The Textile Institute. No.1. 87.Fibre Science and Textile Technology

  • Lawrence CA (1996) “A Study of the Mechanism of Fibres Straightening During Deposition in the Disc-spinning Process-Part 2 Experimental Observations of fibre Transportation”, Journal of The Textile Institute. No.1. 87.Fibre Sciencee and Texttile Technology

  • Lawrence CA, Jiang RK (1992) “An Experimental Study of an Open-end Disc-spinning Concept”, Journal of the Textile Institute. 83: 238-225.

  • El-Dessouky HM, Yassien KM, Lawrence CA “Effect of Heating-cooling Cycle on the Opto-structural Properties of Low-density Polyethylene Fibres using Two-beam Interference Microscopy”, Journal of the Textile Institute,. 101(9), pp 812-822,.2010

  • El–Dessouky HM, Lawrence CA “Nanoparticles Dispersion in Processing Functionalised PP/TiO2 Nanocomposites: Distribution and Properties”, Journal of Nanoparticle Research,. 13.2011: 1115-1124.
    DOI: 10.1007/s11051-010-0100-6

  • El Dessouky HM, Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA The Influence of Fibre Fineness on Physical Characteristics of Staple Polypropylene Fibres Spun at Different Pumping Speeds.

  • El-Dessouky HM, Lawrence CA, Lewis ELV, Voice AM, Ward I “On the Physical Behaviour of Isotactic Polypropylene Fibres Extruded at Different Draw-down Ratios: Part 2 Structure and Properties”, Polymer Engineering and Science. 2010

Chapters

  • Lawrence CA (2007) “The Opening, blending cleaning and carding of cotton”, In: Gordon S; Hsieh Y-L (eds.) Cotton: Science and Technology. Textiles. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. 203-238

  • Peterson JH, Chang J, Wong YH, Lawrence CA (2006) “Handbook on architectures of information systems: Innovative Quick Response Programs in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Chapter: The Emergence of Fast Fashion Business Model and Imposed Quick Response Challenges for Chinese Fabric Manufacturers”, In: Bernus P; Mertins K; Schmidt G (eds.) Handbook on architectures of information systems. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  • Lawrence CA, Collier B (2005) “Biodegradable and sustainable fibres: Chapter 11 Natural Geotextiles”, In: Blackburn RS (eds.) Biodegradable and sustainable fibres. Taylor & Francis US.

  • Lawrence CA “Overview of advances in yarn spinning technology”, In: Advances in Yarn Spinning Technology. No.1. Textiles. Woodhead Publishing. 3-41

Conference papers

  • Lawrence CA, Mistry, P, MacBeth B (2011) Multiplex Laser Technology for Multifunctional Textiles. Techtextil Symposium

  • Lawrence CA, Akonda MH, Weager BM (2011) Recycled Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites for Low Cost Composite Applications. ICMAC 2011: International Conference on Manufacturing of Advanced Composites;,

  • Lawrence CA, Liu P, Russell SJ (2005) Fabric Structural Characteristics for Filtration Media, Design and Development. Proceedings: Techtextil Symposium: Material and Technology Techtextil.

  • Lawrence CA (2003) Smart Materials and Intelligent Textiles. Proceedings: Ann Sutton Foundation Ann Sutton Foundation. (Submitted)

  • Lawrence CA (2003) Nanoscience and Intelligent Materials: Developments and Futrue Possibilities for Textiles. Proceedings: International Textile Design and Engineering Conference INTEDEC 2003, Edinburgh International Textile Design and Engineering Conference INTEDEC 2003, Edinburgh.

  • Lawrence CA (2003) Design of Technical Fabrics for Railtrack Foundation, Fibres and Textiles in Engineering Applications. Proceedings: Fibres Society Annual Conference, Loughborough Fibres Society Annual Conference, Loughborough.

  • Lawrence CA, Thomas R (2002) The Oxidation and Mechanical Performance of HDPE Geomembranes: A more practical durablity parameter. Proceedings: International Geosynthetics Society Annual Conference, Geosynthetics: State of the Art and Recent Developments, NICE International Geosynthetics Society Annual Conference, Geosynthetics: State of the Art and Recent Developments, NICE.: 779-782.

  • Lawrence CA, Tebay RN, Caddick VR, Warwick RG (2002) Geosynthetic Protection of Ballast and Sub-grade in Railway Foundation Structures. Proceedings: Geosynthetics Society Annual Conference, Geosynthetics: State of the Art and Recent Developments NICE Geosynthetics Society Annual Conference, Geosynthetics: State of the Art and Recent Developments NICE.: 901-904.

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR (2002) The Melt Spinning of Fibres and Filaments by the Centrifugal Process. Proceedings: Poster Presentation, Polymer Fibres 2002, UMIST Manchester Poster Presentation, Polymer Fibres 2002, UMIST Manchester.

  • Lawrence CA, Tebay RN, Caddick VR, Warwick RG (2002) Geocomposites in Railways Engineering and their effects on 'Line and Level'. Proceedings: Railways Engineering Conference, London Railways Engineering Conference, London.

  • Lawrence CA (2001) Geotextile Protection Systems for Geomembrane Containment Structures. 1st Autex Conference: TECHNITEX 2001 Proceedings: Designing Textile for Technical Applications TECHNITEX/AUTEX. Vol.1.No.1: 428-429.

  • Lawrence CA, El-Jack A, Tebay RN (2001) Geotextile Protection Systems for Geomembrane Containment Structures. Proceedings: Tecnitex 2001, Technical Textiles: Designing Textiles for Technical Applications, 1st Autex Conference Tecnitex 2001, Technical Textiles: Designing Textiles for Technical Applications, 1st Autex Conference. 1: 428-438.

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B (2001) Development of Lightweight Woven Fabrics from Wool Microfibre Blends. Proceedings: 2001 Internation Textile Congress, Terrassa 2001 Internation Textile Congress, Terrassa.

  • Mahmoudi MR, Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Greenwood B, Iype C (2001) Targeted actions research: a quick response process for new products in the wool sector. Proceedings: First AUTEX International Conference First AUTEX International Conference.

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B (2001) Target Action Fresearch: A Quick Response Process for New Production in the Wool Sector. Proceedings: 1st AUTEX Conference 1st AUTEX Conference. 2

  • Iype C, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Dehghani AA (2000) Cotton system processing of wool and wool rich blends. Proceedings: Textile Asia, October, 2000 Textile Asia, October, 2000.

  • Dehghani AA, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2000) An assessment of changes in the state of fibre mass during the carding process. Proceedings: 4th International Conference TEXSCI 2000, June 2000, Liberec, Czech Republic 4th International Conference TEXSCI 2000, June 2000, Liberec, Czech Republic.

Internet publications

  • Lawrence CA, Dehghani AA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2000) Fibre Dynamics in the Revolving-Flats Card, Part 1: A Critical Review. School of Textile Industries, University of Leeds.

  • Dehghani AA, Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR, Greenwood B, Iype C (2000) Fibre Dynamics in the Revolving-Flats Card, Part 2: An Investigation into the Opening, Individualisation, Orientation and Configuration of Fibres during Short-staple Carding. School of Textile Industries, University of Leeds.

Others

  • Lawrence CA “Applications of Spread Tow Technology for Thermoplastic Composites: Potential and Possibilities,”, Workshop on Thermoplastic Composites. Interpoint Centre Belfast, UK:

Patents

  • Lawrence CA, Mahmoudi MR (2002) UK0128148.4 Centrigual Spinning Process.

  • Lawrence CA Carbon Fibre Yarn and Method for the Production thereof.

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