Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Cultures

School of Design


Bruce Carnie


0113 343 3777

PhD, MA, Grad. Dip AD


Dr. Carnie has a PhD in Design (Design Management) from the University of New South Wales, Sydney, a Masters or Art (Textiles and Fashion) from Manchester Metropolitan University and a Graduate Diploma in Art and Design (Textiles) from Glasgow School of Art. Bruce is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) for the promotion of Design in Industry. Bruce has a successful design and consultancy practice where he has worked across a number of disciplinary fields including, textiles, fashion, costume design, graphics, brand management and illustration. Dr. Carnie has taught in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and the UK. With the following scope of research interests; design and mass customisation (textile related), design as strategy, design and sustainable technology (textile related), service design, design thinking, design futures, design and identity, design and communication, Bruce is interested in supervision of postgraduate research projects from students investigating these and related fields of study.

Research Interests

With the following scope of research interests, design and mass customisation (textile related), design as strategy, design and sustainability, service design, design thinking, design futures, design and identity, design and communication, Bruce is interested in supervision of postgraduate research projects from students investigating these and related fields of study.


Level Subject
Level 2  

Design Management

Marketing creativity and innovation

Level 3 Dissertation Supervision

Design for Texiles 3

Critical Studio Journal

Textile Design (digital)

Collaborative Marketing


MA and TIB Maters Research Methodology
Negotiated Project
Reflective Project


  • Member of the PVAC Faculty Research Ethics Committee (2012-2015)
  • Member of the School of Design Management Team (2012-)
  • Undergraduate Admissions Tutor School of Design (2012-2013)
  • Director of International Partnerships (2016-


Journal articles

  • Deschamps TC, Carnie B, Mao N (2016) “Public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico”, Textiles and Clothing Sustainability. 2
    DOI: 10.1186/s40689-016-0017-2, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/97969/

    The Mexican economy has been showing a continuous and arguably remarkable growth in the last decade, and it is expected that this strong economic growth is based on a balance between social equity, fiscal growth and environmental protection. This composite situation requires us to have a clear understanding of changes in consumer behaviour and their attitudes towards ethical consumerism in this region. With the use of a semi-structured questionnaire, this pilot study presented a detailed analysis of the consumer attitudes towards ethical consumerism in relation to their socio economic class levels in this region, the public consciousness and willingness to embrace ethical consumption of textile products in Mexico were thus determined. It is hoped that this knowledge provides the basis for the initiation of a framework of activities and measures to develop sustainable consumption habits and to educate consumers on the subject of ethical consumption.

  • Sugathan M, Cassidy T, Carnie B (2016) “The development and evaluation of a speciality handknitting yarn using appropriate technology for the empowerment of women in rural India”, RESEARCH JOURNAL OF TEXTILE AND APPAREL. 20.3: 136-154.
    DOI: 10.1108/RJTA-03-2016-0005, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/104885/

  • Duan Y, Carnie BW, Cheung V, Cassidy T (2013) “Knitted fabric effects using two-coloured (marl) yarns”, International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education.
    DOI: 10.1080/17543266.2012.761731, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/86692/

    Marl yarn, which is regularly used in knitwear and contributes to the scope of knitted fabrics, is often used in response to the colour effects that this yarn can offer the designer. Whilst there is relatively little understanding of the formation of such colour effects, this paper summarises a study on a marl yarn knitting technique to move the level of understanding forward. In this study, four elements: yarn type, yarn colours, knitting machine gauge, and knitting structure have each been considered within the knitting process. A set of 72 samples were knitted by combining different elements systematically. A new terminology 'marledness' has been defined and is referred to as: two plied or twisted yarns of different colours to form a knitted sample with colour effects that are evenly distributed in a dotted manner. If the yarns are not twisted together before knitting and tension variations occur, then the result can be a barred effect. Based on the criterion of 'marledness', 10 experts and 10 inexperienced observers were asked to rank the outcomes in order. These results allow for a better understanding on how to prepare the yarns and knitting process to achieve different degrees of marledness. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Conference papers

  • Maktabi M, Carnie B, Mao N, Goswami P (2015) Enhancement of the aesthetics appearance and softness of knitted spacer fabric. 5th SMARTEX - 2015 Egypt (5th World Textile Conference) Proceedings: Proceedings of 5th SMARTEX - 2015 Egypt (World Textile Conference) Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/93415/

    With the advances in textile technology and manufacturing methods, the textile industry is witnessing a revolution in technical textile fabrics. These innovative fabrics are entering the market and competing successfully due to their unique properties and added value. Knitted spacer fabric is one of those products that are desirable for their high compression resistance properties as well as the high air permeability, durability and distinguished thermal conductivity. These textiles have been widely used as a replacement for conventional cushions, and used as cover fabrics for seats in vehicles, as well as a variety of other applications This study aims to achieve an improvement in softness of handle and aesthetic appeal by creating a ‘composite’ of knitted spacer fabric and a Tencel nonwoven fabric.

  • Nam KW, Carnie BW (2014) The value of design for customers in the service industry: contributions and measurements. Academic Design Management Conference Proceedings: Design Management in an Era of Disruption: Proceedings of the 19th DMI Design Management Institute.: 1365-1399.
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/98020/

    In the contemporary market, quality is no longer the key differentiator for a brand. Among the marketing activities available, design is arguably acknowledged as the most distinctive method for achieving long-term brand recognition. Unlike technology, design emotionally interacts with people, and it is not easy to emulate a compelling design identity that has been effectively established. Despite its well-recognised impact, companies still hesitate to strategically employ design. The main source of the hesitation may be rooted in the ambiguity of measuring design contributions. This is particularly true in the service industry where the impact of technology development is relatively lower. This makes it a suitable industry sector for investigating environments where design has a more significant marketing role. Two major forms of research are performed within this paper: the horizontal/spectrum understanding of value, and embedding design perspectives in the service-profit chain using SERVQUAL (SERVice-QUALity) measurements. This paper proposes a model that can quantify and visualise design contributions from the customer’s perspective within the service industry sector.

  • Nam KW, Carnie BW (2014) Design effectiveness: Building customer satisfaction and loyalty through design. Design Research Society Biennial International Conference Proceedings: Proceedings of DRS 2014: Design’s Big Debates Umeå Institute of Design.: 1707-1727.
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/98018/

    The contribution of design is regarded as one of the most crucial factors in business. However, there remains ambiguity about how design affects the building of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore, in terms of any business situation, the output of design efforts and investment should arguably be greater than management expect in order to be recognised as a worthy investment. This paper presents a novel combined conceptual framework of the design audit and value typology. By employing design embedded business theories, design value can be both assessed. Taking Freeman's stakeholder theory and conflating this with Holbrook's typology of value, a novel and more inclusive theory emerges upon which to clearly identify the scope of perspectives of value across all stakeholders within a business. Empirical findings through customer survey verify the suitability of the proposed measuring matrix used in this study. Furthermore, this empirical finding from customers can be the corner stone of determining the effectiveness of design in the food and beverage service industry by embedding design perceptions in a business theory of practice.

  • Duan Y, Cheung TLV, Cassidy T, Carnie BW (2013) Evaluation of colour effects on knitted fabrics using marl yarns. AIC Colour 2013: Twelfth Congress of the International Color Association Proceedings: Proceedings of AIC Colour 2013: 12th Congress of the International Colour Association The Colour Group (Great Britain).: 1721-1724.
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/81211/

  • Carnie B (2010) Design Concept; strategies for Teaching and Learning. ConnectEd, International Academic Conference

    The balancing act of defining ‘design concept’ and explaining the designing process continues to plague studiobased teaching and learning (Cross, N., 2007). These two convergent pursuits cause concern for both student and teacher when it comes to deliverables that will enhance learning experiences in design education. A significant problem is how to develop course content that will assist in the improvement of skills in framing and writing design concepts which remains a weak aspect of the student output for assessment. The design concept should arguably provide an ongoing reference during the design development process. Once the product or service is resolved the design concept should continue to provide a suitable reference for the marketing of the design outcome to the target audience (Verganti, R.,2009). Writing can be regarded as a lesser developed skill for the visually literate design student. This paper addresses how can we develop better teaching and learning experiences for undergraduate design students who struggle with this fundamental contributor to successful design outcomes, the design concept. The research method will focus on a qualitative analysis of the design concept statements from undergraduates enrolled in the textile design courses at the College of Fine Arts, University of New South Wales during 2009. The analysis will monitor the understanding, consistency and coherence in the application of the selected design concept during the design development process. A novel approach to developing design concepts will be introduced to the new cohort of students in 2010 for comparative analysis with the 2009 data. The results of this research will interrogate if the provision of model examples of sound concepts for the student to deconstruct will assist in developing original concepts for application to the design project, and assist the student in learning and thus understanding this important activity in design practice.

  • Carnie B (2010) “Managing Creativity: a new course to address a shortfall identified in the visual arts employment sector". CONNECTED 2010 – 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DESIGN EDUCATION

    ABSTRACT Historically learning and teaching in tertiary education, characterised by a studio culture which emphasises creativity, has been determined to be key to the enhancement of employability within the visual arts. Underpinning the emphasis of creativity by research and practice linkages is now accepted to be the imperative for successful employment of our Post Graduates in the visual arts (Brew, 2006). Issues surrounding management are considered vital across all of the creative and cultural industries. There is an identified lack of understanding surrounding the need for strong management skills, particularly in small organisations. For the creative and cultural industries technological developments increase the importance of good management. Technological developments require individuals to learn faster, and communicate across traditional boundaries. This situation adds complexity, but also opens up opportunities for teaching and learning within the University sector in its Post Graduate offerings (ccskills.org.uk; NESTA). It is posed that a current issue with the field of Managing Creativity is that it most often sits outside the day to day studio based teaching and learning situation that dominates the time-table for the Post Graduate visual arts curriculum. This does not have to be the case. It is proposed that there be introduced into the curriculum an integrated project undertaken by the Masters of Cross-Disciplinary Art and Design by Coursework offered by COFA Online at the University of New South Wales. It is proposed that a conceptual project undertaken by students in their major studio be used as a basis to develop a management plan to take the conceptual and make it a realizable outcome. Using the reflective model, (Schön, 1987; Johns, 1994, 1995) actions determining the detailed nature of the course content and integrated project approach will be developed to addresses the identified shortfall in the creative industries sector for the Masters of Cross-Disciplinary Art and Design by Coursework Degree at UNSW.

  • Carnie B, Jackson T (2006) Autopoiesis: A theoretical framework for a design management model for the textile print business. Fashion Forward, University of the Arts, London Proceedings: Fashion Foward London College of Fashion.
    Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/88577/

    My research will provide a design management framework for the textile print business in their efforts to rationalise the move forward to embrace direct digital textile printing. Autopoiesis, as defined by Maturana and Varela (1987) is a ‘self-generating, self-bounding and a self-renewing’ process. Luhmann (1995) and Coleman Jr. (2000) researched its validity as a model for the social sciences and in turn the management sector; Luhmann’s theory being refuted by Viskovatoff (1999, 481-516) and Hernes and Bakken (2003, 1511-1535). Creativity is considered an essential element in the pursuit of design. (Florida, 2002) The space that creativity demands is necessary to integrate into an appropriate design management model for effective application in a business situation. In business, change is driven by the consumer, technology and economics. To qualify my investigation it is worthy to consider current economic theories that have a resonance with this type of management theory. These are important consideration in the search for a model for design management that is closely aligned to the current situation within the textile print industry. A self organising management system offers benefits for the businesses and organisations involved. I aim to extend/augment a model based on ‘autopoiesis’ applicable for the design management of digital textile print. I will conduct this research by use of a literature review outlining current arguments as to the value of autopoiesis in design management theory. The outcomes from development of this framework will provide the researcher with a valid basis from which to can question a number of case study sites for further validation.

  • Carnie B (2006) Evolution in Design Management and its affect on Design Practice. Design History Society: Design and Evolution Proceedings: Design and Evolution : Annual Conference Design History Society 2006

    The past decade has seen greater interest around design practice from an evolutionary perspective (Dawkins, 1986, Sibly, 2000, Langrish, 1999, 2004, 2005, Yagou, 2004). Arguments from these contributors include the memes construct, adaptation and natural selection. Similarly management is engaged in the evolutionary debate in the field of business practice with similar points of reference (Aldrich, 1979, 1986, Bahk and Gort, 1993, Doz, 1996, Biggiero, 2001, Matthews, et al, 2003). This paper argues that Design Management, the interface between design and business, (De Mozota, 2003) adds dimension to the debate. Missing from these debates is the autopoietic view of evolution. Ontogeny described by Maturana and Varela (1972, 1987) is the history of structural changes in a particular unity. The perturbations by the environment in which this unity exists may impact on the unity “if” the internal communications determine this to be appropriate; thus creating a change in the structure of the unity. This subsequently leads to phylogeny or development and diversification in the unity. This filtering of feedback to feed-forward to determine change within the unity is an appropriate metaphor for any design, problem solving process. This is convergent with the way in which business units’ change in structure and organisation in their attempts to aligning with their changing operational environments. Natural selection is viewed in a particular manner in autopoiesis. The use of the word selection usually infers choice. In the case of autopoiesis and in Darwin’s theory on evolution and natural selection (Darwin, 1859) it is important to note that Darwin stated it was “as if” there was natural selection occurring. This seems again appropriate given the manner in which design practice in its complexity and likewise with management systems in business that an informed drift to a new state or change is occurring rather than known, restricted predictability. Drawing upon comparison around the scholarly debate of evolution within the fields of management and design practice, this paper proposes a table which outlines parallel and divergent thinking, with additional data from two case studies which postulate that drift is a more appropriate conclusion. It will demonstrate the determinations regarding the effect of design management on design practice from an evolutionary perspective. Highlighting the complexity of the situation, this paper will articulate why business and design practice struggle to answer the problems of selection as opposed to drift.

  • Carnie B (2004) New models for design management for the textile industry as a result of Direct Digital Textile Printing. Futureground

External Appointments

Textile Lead – Crafts Council project – Make Your Future (2016 -)

External Advisor: Taught Postgraduate Programmes: College of Fine Art, the University of NSW, Sydney, Australia (2013-)

Advisory Board Consultant: Design Research Center, Jianshe Group, Chongqing Jiaotong University, China (2013-)

Advisory Board Consultant: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, Sydney Australia (2006-2011)

PhD & Postdoctoral Supervision

  • Manju Sugathan: An upcycling strategy for a rural village in India (2012-2015)
  • Kiwoong Nam: The effectiveness of operating environmental design in the food and beverage service industry (2012-2016)
  • Sea-hwa Won: Colour information in design (2012-2016)
  • Andrew Gray: Design and Nostalgia (2014- withdrawn)
  • Mary Loveday Edwards (2015-)
  • Gabriela Encino (2016-)
  • Stephanie De La Cruz Mercado (2017 -)

PhD Thesis

Currently the textile industry is experiencing a phase of digital change. This changeimpacts upon the production of printed textiles with greater scope for applyingimages onto fabric, also prompting the question; what is the role of DesignManagement in this changing environment?The Design Management framework required to assess these changes needs toaddress the dynamic areas of identity, communication, evolution and creativity.Direct digital print technology can readily be dovetailed with body scanning, laser cutting, on-demand production etc. all of which impact upon the managementframework required to address these conditions. Designing “for” the customer,evolving to designing “with” the customer is now within the scope of Direct DigitalTextile Printing. As technology leads to integrated design approaches to end productthe changing identity of textile design to a more encompassing design practiceensues.This investigation is approached from an experienced professional DesignManagement perspective; the focus is the development of a Design Managementframework that is applicable to the breadth of business operations and theenvironmental influences that this digital textile situation encompasses. The personal problematic that stimulated this study – Is the Direct Digital Textile Print industryalive or not? – requires, in its basic form, an understanding of the definingcharacteristics of ‘life’. Dealing with this personal research question requires anunderstanding of this biologically located question.This research is conceptually based on “autopoiesis” (self-organization) presented byMaturana and Varela (1980): Formerly contained to biology but more recentlydeveloped to embrace a world view. The theory of metaphor is examined andconflated with the conceptual frame work, particularly in regards to the learningorganisation. Eight case study participants: designer, management and client,addressed a series of questions leading to the generation of a dynamic framework for Design Management. A selection of congruent methodologies including thegeneration of a series of hypothesis was designed through a qualitative approach tocreate the proposed dynamic Design Management framework.A reflective section concludes this study that indicates applications of this research inthe emerging field of Design Management practice which in turn lead to a teachingand learning proposal.


Professional Practice

Historic Houses Trust NSW: Director “To Furnish a Future”, documentary film, commissioned, (2009-2010)

Australian National University:  “Design Management and the Digital Textile Print Industry” Australian National University, School of Art, Art Forum guest presentation funded through the School of Art, ANU, Art Forum grant (2009)

WEB Consulting: Conference Keynote “A Users View of Digital Textile Printing”, Digital Textile 2002, Editor, Partridge, S., icommissioned by WEB Consulting Ltd; funded through WEB Consulting (2002)

China Dolls, Film directed by Tony Ayres, Costume and design consultant (1997)




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